The Scientific Approach To Buddhist Study  Mathematical Principle (III)
The Utmost Physics: Constitute The Great Cosmic Macromathematics Based On LParticle
Lecturer / Sun Don Lee (Leader of Forshang Buddhism) Writer/ JenKou Chou (Resident Instructor of Forshang Buddhism World Center, LA Branch/ PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University) Translator / Helena Chou (Resident Instructor of Forshang Buddhism World Center, LA Branch)
I. Seeking the Unified Field Theory Scientists of modern physics work primarily on looking for a unified field theory to explain all the wonderful phenomena of the nature. In view of what has been done in the past, Isaac Newton discovered in the 17th century the law of gravity, which explains the relation of the terrestrial gravity and celestial mechanics. Clerk Maxwell united in the 19th century the electrical field, magnetic field, with optics and thus developed the theory of electromagnetism. In the beginning of the 20th century, from 1905 to 1916, Einstein united geometrically gravity with spacetime to develop the theory of relativity. Since 1920 till now, Quantum mechanics even unites successfully chemistry with high energy particle physics. Although Einstein spent the last 30 years of his lifetime searching a unified field theory that could unite his general relativity with the theory of electromagnetism, he never really succeeded. Thus, as quantum mechanics has made successful progress, most prominent physicists, such as Dr. Stephen Hawking and Dr. Weinberg etc., attempt to unite quantum mechanics with general relativity to explain, on the smallest scale, happenings of elementary particles through "Standard model" or to predict, on the largest scale, events in the cosmos, such as black holes. In this new trend, there is still an unresolved major problem in fundamental physics, that is, the quantum mechanics and the gravity theory of Einstein's general relativity are mutually exclusive. In the new millenium, what comes next? In the physics of humankind, Dr. Hawking and Dr. Weinberg, etc. pointed out, progress toward unification has been made, but in a very different direction. Here are several possible consequences:
In the meanwhile, laboratories of the world, such as Fermi Laboratory outside Chicago and a Larger Hadron Collider under construction at CERN in Europe, will spend the next ten years or so experimenting on collisions of particles of highest energy possible so as to verify the abovementioned theories. On the other hand, Stanford Linear Accelerator is also trying to find out from a different perspective why matters are ever so slightly outweighs antimatters in the universe. Even though the two are mirror images and annihilate each other when they meet, why the minuscule "left over" amount of matter gives rise to every atom and star in the universe? There are other experiments that also look for answers to the question: why does time flow in one direction only? While some are searching the subatomic world for significant clues to unravel outstanding mysteries, observations by some other groups begin to stretch tentacles to the outer space. Two new major satellites, one from NASA and the other from Europe, are getting ready to scrutinize the afterglow of the big bang, which is called cosmic background radiation explorer or COBE. These earliest bits of light come stamped with a clear imprint of the primordial structure of the universe that evolved into everything. More interestingly, astronomers have proven in 1997 that a faraway galaxy NRAO 530 might indeed sent out cosmic rays that is 26 times of light speed. These findings might very well revise today's physics laws. (reference 1) With all the efforts that were put into developing theories and conducting experiments, scientists have predicted that a unified field theory might be successfully achieved by the year of 2050. They also admit, however, that radically new ideas and theories are needed as the underpinning to solve the mystery. The World of Forshang magazine has briefly revealed some new concepts and theories of Master SunDon Lee of Forshang Buddhism in the last several issues. (reference 2, 3, 4, 5) In this article, we would like to explain further more and elaborate through mathematical models on the previously mentioned theories from the perspective of spacetime unification.
II. Bottlenecks in modern Physics in recognizing
time, space and void Einstein's general relativity and quantum mechanics are both quite wellrounded so far. Scientific evidences of several decades show that these two theories in physics are true in making predictions or applications anywhere in the universe we live. For example, quantum mechanics helps laser and computer take shape while Einstein's general relativity accurately predicts many celestial phenomena, from the existence of black hole to the light bending by the gravity of stars, etc. However, a fundamental problem lies underneath as these two theories do not agree with each other in the recognition of time and space. For example, in order to understand the ultimate innards of black hole, or in other words, the Big Bang as the origin of the universe, man has to grip with how tremendous gravity behaves momentarily at infinitesimal scales in terms of time and space. Naturally, as the universe gets smaller and smaller, the warping of spacetime gets stronger and quantum uncertainties get progressively larger. Finally, the uncertainty becomes larger than any time interval that could possibly be measured. Measurement becomes meaningless. Therefore, modern physicists cannot define t = 0. They can at the most trace back to 10^{43} second after the Big Bang, the Planck era in quantum mechanics. For any time smaller than this value, either they totally lack the confidence, or they are even uncertain whether time does exist, not to mention any descriptions of phenomena before the Big Bang. (Refer to reference 2, 3, 4, 5) In the other hand, we wonder what is going on inside a black hole? The black hole is an area in space, where the gravity is so strong that spacetime curls in on itself, in effect, shutting out the rest of the universe. Based on Einstein's general relativity, their enormous gravity disintegrates and causes spacetime to collapse to an infinitesimal point of zero size  what physicists call singularity at present. Is there such a nonsensical thing as infinite density packed into zero size? This singularity is like a fault, beyond which everything ends upon approaching. Beyond the singularity there is no more time or space. For the time being, there are yet no laws of physics that are applicable in describing phenomena beyond the fault  singularity. In general relativity the void seems completely vacuous in terms of events and forms in the spacetime coordinate and therefore no substance exists in it. However, from the perspective of quantum mechanics, spacetime has all the possibilities in terms of energy and mass in the subatomic world, with a negative value. Negative energies are infinite, being repulsive to each other. The astronomical observations made in 1998 of the huge celestial explosions occurred on the far reaches of the cosmos indicated that a tremendous repulsive force does exist, which is characterized by its "miraculous existence within nonexistence." However, the phenomena lead to the mathematical difference between the theoretical and the observed answers, which is a number so big that it has 120 zeros after it. In the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, many contradicting interpretations are rendered in regard to matter/antimatter, dark matter and energy in vacuity. First of all, let's look at the characteristics of time and space from the theory of relativity. How do man come to recognize time and space? A material form exists because we first sense through eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body its location in space. And then, as the forms change, we recognize the events and also sense the process, in which time flows in one direction only (or in other words, the continuation of thoughts  the characteristics of time.) However, all the sounds, lights, and forms are fundamentally a matter of signal and existence. For example, we have to have light as a signal to be able to perceive the form of energy/mass. Besides, the signal itself has to take into consideration the characteristics of its storage, resource (or the place of existence), and transmission as well. Light has been recognized as the basic standard in physics because it is rendered from quantum jump of the energy field, characterized by the absoluteness and invariance in its transmitting speed and process, requiring no particular material medium for its transmission. Therefore, from light geometry (refer to reference 6), today's science has come to a strict definition of time, and also of space, and the simultaneity of events in different spaces. Then, what is "the unity of time and space"? There is a very close relationship between time and space. Space difference is equal to the product of the speed of light and the time difference △S = C△T, where the light plays the most important role in connecting these two terms. Simply put, time is space. And the spacetime map is thus constructed. Based on this, we would be able to understand all the changing phenomena of different forms and the relations among forms in spacetime. In other words, the subject dealing with the observed phenomena of events in different inertia frame of reference is the central core of special relativity. From light geometry, we can define a model of spacetime. Based on this model, we can build various systems, within each system the light has been observed to travel in equal time through the equal distance in space. In mathematics, it can be expressed as follows. In a system k, the formula for the propagation of light between events is given by the relation D x_{1}^{2}＋Dx_{2}^{2}＋Dx_{3}^{2 }＝ c^{2}Dt^{2} (1) where D indicates the difference between the corresponding coordinates of the two endpoints of events. From the close relationship between time and space mentioned above, we may write x_{4} for cDt, and put x_{4}^{2} on the left side of equation and change sign. Then the equation reads: Dx_{4}^{2 }－（Dx_{1}^{2}＋Dx_{2}^{2}＋Dx_{3}^{2}）＝0 (2a) In system K, which moves in relative velocity v with respect to our system k, the propagation of light must also be given by a corresponding equation of the form: DX_{4}^{2 }－（DX_{1}^{2}＋DX_{2}^{2}＋DX_{3}^{2}）＝ 0 (2b) The transformation of physical parameters between these two systems k and K is therefore characterized by the mathematical transformation from (2a) into (2b). In general, we would assume the property of rigidity of the inertial system, the solution to this mathematical problem is the wellknown form of Lorentz linear transformation. If in addition we specify the direction of motion of one system as being the direction of the x_{1} axis of the other and give identical origins of the two systems, one of the simplifying solutions is as follows:
x_{1} ＝ (X_{1}＋vT) / √1－v^{2} / c^{2} x_{2}＝X_{2} ，x_{3}＝X_{3}， t ＝ (T＋vX_{1}/c^{2}) / √1－v^{2}/c^{2} (3) With further understanding of its physical significance, the following points can be obtained:
"Go with circumstances but stick to the
essence." As an example, if we go on a trip to a distant star with the distances (measured in the earth inertial system) by a high speed rocket with velocity Vrocket. This trip would take us t = s/Vrocket, (as measured from earth system again.) We also normalize the rocket speed by the speed of light c in the universe where we live to obtain v = Vrocket/c. As a result, the characteristics of the time and space of this journey can be described in the form: (proper time)^{2 }= (advance in time in any system of reference)^{2 } (advance in space in any system of reference)^{2} (4a) (proper length)^{2 }= (advance in space in any system of reference)^{2 } (advance in time in any system of reference)^{2} (4b) (Please note that the systems of reference also include the earth.) or just consider proper time, which is expressed in mathematical terms as: τ^{2}_{ }＝ t ^{2}_{ }－（vt）^{2} (4c) where τ is the proper time measured in rocket system. From (4c) we obtain the ratio of time dilation t /τ=1/√1v^{2} (5) Similarly, we can also derive a contraction ratio of a moving object along its direction of motion, S/s＝√1－v^{2} (6) (S is the distance or length measured in rocket frame for the travel distance between earth and star.) According to the time dilation and length contraction formula (5) and (6), as long as the speed of rocket is fast enough, i.e. very close to the speed of light, the time to travel from earth to any star might take tens of millions of years in earth reference frame as compared to less than one second in rocket frame. Similarly, for such a long distance (tens of millions of light years), as far as the tourists in the rocket are concerned there may be several thousand kilometers only. Therefore, we can say that the whole universe is ours, and it might be true that we tourists in rocket could visit every place within this lifetime. However, from the viewpoints of modern science, there are still several major obstacles that need to be solved.
Some cases violate the empirical law of causality, some cases may be consistent with conservation of energy but are forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics (a broken glass does not reassemble itself), and some cases may allow backward time travels that mess up causes and effects. (For example, if your grandfather is killed before your father is conceived, how can you ever exist at this moment in time?) All these ramifications would cause paradoxes if understood only from physics/mathematics laws of the solar system or the positive time axis cosmic quadrant where we live. These problems puzzled the smartest theoretical physicists, including Steven Hawking. In 1974, Stephen W. Hawking made his famous prediction that black holes evaporate by emitting radiation. By quantum mechanics arguments and thermodynamics, it must be a flow of negative energy into the black hole for this Hawking radiation. But the accompanying result of backward time travel made Dr. Hawking against the possibility of time travel. Not until 1992 when he proposed "chronology protection conjecture theory" based on quantum mechanics, which excludes time travelers from changing causes and effects in the past, did he change his viewpoints and admitted the possibility of time travel. At the same time, he proved that any construction of a time machine in a finite region of spacetime inherently requires negative energy. All these confusions originate from the lack of true understanding of time and space. For instance, the spacetime overlapping, the nonuniqueness of speed of light of multiple universes, and the true nature of spacetime distortion are not explored yet in modern physics.
III. Master Lee's revelation on time and space: The spacetime unity; The simultaneous cause and effect; The incessant turning of Dharma wheels.
At the first time Master SunDon Lee read the WeiMoJeh Sutra, he was greatly amazed by the description of WeiMoJeh's room being able to comfortably accommodate tens of millions of beings. "To contain HsuMi Mountain in a mustard seed. " Since Sakyamuni Buddha, the Buddhist perspective on the unity of time and space has already included, and even gone beyond, today's most advanced scientific theories, including theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, and Super String theory, etc. The Diamond Sutra also states, "The past mind is unattainable, so are the present mind and the future mind." Since the past, the present, and the future minds are unattainable, then where is your mind? This refers to the great space of time, or the unity of time and space. We cannot attain any of these three minds because there are "differentiated forms." If we dwell in Buddha nature  the one united form, time and space are united and Dharma wheels turn incessantly. While every moment of mind is eternity, being the past, the present and the future, you attain your mind. Forshang Buddhism expounds the ten great characters: essence, form, wisdom, virtue, principle, practice, energy, effect, time and space, being ultimately the unity of time and space with no differentiation in time and space In physics, that means "time equals space," having absolutely no differentiation in time or space itself (meaning that the past equals the present and the future and that any point in space is the same) or between time and space (because time equals space). This concept is actually very simple. All the unsettled spacetime theories, including the spacetime travel, that are conceived on the basis of the advanced physics such as theory of relativity or quantum mechanics, as well as the five incomprehensible supernatural powers in Buddhism, can be easily explained with concepts Master Lee reveals. In the following, we will discuss each of these points respectively.
A. Lparticle: the spacetime unity and its eternity and invariance
From equation (4), (5), and (6) in section II, we come to realize a point: The different energies (also causing relative motion) between observers result in different perceptions of any events in spacetime; therefore, the greatest contribution of Einstein's relativity theory is to have found the basic interval invariance, which is the first and initial interpretation of spacetime unity. (references 6, 8) Due to the difference in speed and energy appeared to observers, the perception of a form, including time and space, is rather relative than absolute. Light is also a form; therefore, it is impossible to find the interval invariance in the universe based on the speed of light. "Proper time/length invariance" (Equation 4) inferred from human theory of relativity cannot completely interpret the spacetime unity correctly. Then, is there a signal that is less restricted and more flexible? Yes, there is. This signal originates from Buddha nature, the Lparticle, and the signal is the spiritual power of all beings. What characteristics does it have? As mentioned in the previous section, the human spacetime structure is defined on the basis of light. There are several major blind points in that structure: First, it comes from form and therefore inevitably involves ordered sequence, causality and reincarnation. Second, the speed of light measured on the basis of form has a constant value, which is neither a zero nor the infinity, and therefore lacks flexibility to accommodate the overlapping spacetime structure of the infinite universes. Third, the definition is circular. For example, the constant speed of light is used as the basis to define spacetime; however, the speed itself is defined as space being divided by time. On the condition that the multiple universes overlap but do not interfere with each other, it is barely acceptable to take the speed of light as the absolute standard within that single universe where we live, which is, on the other hand, restricted by the speed of light. Because there will be a dilemma if adopting the original spacetime structure in the multiple universes, it will not work if we take the absolute and constant value of speed of light as part of this extended definition. Then, what is the real absolute and immutable standard in the universe? As said in Forshang doctrines, "long
kalpas turn into short kalpas and short kalpas turn into long kalpas;
the broad space turns into the narrow space and the narrow space turns
into the broad space." In other words, from the perspective of
speed or energy, in order to appear instantly or exist in infinite
multiple universes, and to be able to see through all the
transformations in the past, present and future all at one place in
space, the transmitting signal with a fixed speed is definitely not
satisfactory. That is because a fixed signal speed generates the
ordered sequence or the differentiation in a set of events. That is a
restriction. Thus, the perfect signal should be the spiritual power,
which comes from the Buddha nature  Lparticle, being existent
simultaneously in all space, and also in the past, present and future
(to have no differentiation in time). Once the spiritual power of
Buddha nature  Lparticle arises, the interaction occurs all over the
universes simultaneously. From the standpoint of Buddha nature 
Lparticle, or essence, there is no need to define the transmitting
properties of photon. "The mind is perfectly united with the
universe. The accordance is felt in all space."  the first and
the second sentences in the Worship and Repentance Prayer of Forshang
Buddhism have perfectly described this situation. Besides, Yuan Dao
Bodhisattva, the second patriarch of Forshang Buddhism also instructed
in the Dharma Fundamentals of Forshang Buddhism that "As the mind
and matter are inseparable, the existence and nonexistence are
united. The mass is imperishable, so is the energy and the spiritual
power." The spiritual powers of all beings interact with each
other, rendering the spacetime warp, or the corresponding
transformations of mass into energy and vice versa. Therefore, we
would emphasize again that the light recognized by modern scientists
is only one physical phenomenon of mass/energy and cannot correctly
lead to or express the unified invariance scientists are pursuing.
Eventually, we have to take the path of Buddha nature  Lparticle to
reach the goal. That is to say, the real spacetime unity has to be
understood from the perspective of the Cosmic MacroMathematics. (Excerpted respectfully from Master Lee's The Supreme HuaYen Diamond Sutra, the WeiMoJieh Sutra Book I, Principle of the Origin of Universe instructed in the mental doctrine class, and the Dharma Fundamentals of Forshang Buddhism by YuanDao Bodhisattva, the second Patriarch of Forshang Buddhism.)
B.
Negative Time Axis Cosmic Quadrant, Negative Energy Particle and
Reversal of Cause and Effect Master Lee expounded recently (Jan. 22, 29 and Feb. 19, 2000) on the subject of negative time and speed in the mental doctrine class in Taipei Headquarters. Any spacetime of a single universe is overlapped with that of countless other universes. Usually they do not communicate with each other. But if good causes and suitable energy are involved, one being can glide into another universe through spacetime warp tunnel. Unfortunately, it is almost always an oneway traffic, i.e. he may never be able to go back to the starting point. In other words, it is possible that people aboard any manmade time travel machine on a journey away from the solar system may enter any other cosmic spacetime but never come back. From the viewpoint of Cosmic MacroMathematics, because of the overlapping, events happening in other cosmic spacetime might happen in the future viewed from our frame of reference on earth. Even though the said events will happen in the future, they actually have already existed. If we happen to be able to measure/sense or predict those events, it might still take some time to go through the whole process to realize the original relevant causes. This particular situation is the true definition of negative time and negative speed in the Cosmic MacroMathematics. Master Lee has brought out an original Big Bang theory (reference 2). He emphasizes that in addition to the positive time axis cosmic quadrant, another corresponding negative time axis cosmic quadrant also come to be. Contrary to our lives, theirs proceed in the reversal of causality (i.e. the effect precedes the cause) and carry negative energy. We would first discuss this phenomenon with human mathematics. From reference 8, we consider the energy (E) and momentum (p) of an object (m) as follows: E ＝ γmc^{2} (7)  energy and p ＝ γmv (8)  momentum where γ is defined as γ＝ 1/√1－v^{2}/c^{2} (9) From (7)，(8) we find that  pc  /  E  =  v  /  c  (10) In the negative time axis cosmic quadrant, the speed of object is superluminal, v is greater than c, we can thus write E^{2} < p^{2}c^{2 }(11) (for a faster than light object) But, since we know from relativity theory: E^{2} = p^{2}c^{2} ＋ m^{2}c^{4} (12) We find that the only way to get E^{2} < p^{2}c^{2} is on the condition that the mass squared is negative because then m^{2}c^{4} reduces the sum in equation (12). The mass would then be the squared root of a negative number, and it is called an imaginary number. It may seem odd, but it has important mathematical applications. Theoretically (In concept), this peculiar mass whose value turns out to be an imaginary number is viewed from our positive time axis frame of reference, and that is not something unreasonable. Furthermore, from equation (9), for γ, we find that it too is imaginary (again from our standing), if v is greater than c. That means from equation (7), the energy would be a real, negative number (because we multiply two imaginary numbers  m and γ to get E). The same would be true for the momentum. We can conclude the following two points:
C. Breaking through spacetime energy barrier  cause and effect being simultaneous
From the perspective of Cosmic MacroMathematics, the forms we need to consider must be comprehensive to include not just all the forms in the solar system or the positive time axis cosmic quadrant which we are familiar with, but also all the forms in the other three cosmic quadrants, the negative time axis, the real time axis, and the imaginary time axis cosmic quadrants, being represented by the third Dharma mark of Forshang Buddhism. We need to further consider all the intricately overlapping forms that are involved in the infinite multiple universes and their quadrants. They do not communicate or interfere with each other due to the unique speed of light in each single universe/its quadrants. This unique speed of light in each universe defines not only its own spacetime structure but also serve as the spacetime energy barrier. In other words, the overlapping within multiple universes and interface between spacetime warp are defined and confined by each different and unique speed of light in each universe. If we can mentally recognize that the definition of spacetime structure is restricted by the light (because light is still a form), and accept the true characteristics of spacetime unity as well as unified invariance of L particle (as mentioned in IIIA), we will understand the equality of all the times, including +1, +2, ....+∞, 1 or 0. Furthermore, all the events and forms occurring in any space are possible and equivalent. Then we conclude that the characteristics of the overlapping of all the multiple universes must be unified and inclusive. Only with such an universal perspectives can we understand Buddha nature, or L particle, and break through the probable adherence to the forms, being able to travel freely between all different spacetime of the overlapped multiple universes. In the meantime, the physical restriction has also to be reduced to zero, i.e. m → 0. It turns out that the two major energy equations must be true simultaneously. E ＝ mc^{2} (13) (physical aspect) E ＝ 1/m * c^{2} (14) (spiritual aspect) Multiplying (13) and (14), we get E^{2} = (m * 1/m)c^{4} (15) Where c is the speed of light, of which the value is a constant in the single universe, but can vary from one universe to another if considering multiple universes. If considering the whole multiple universes, the speed of light could be taken into the (m‧1/m) term, and need not to be considered. However, in the meantime, the material barrier must be reduced to zero i.e. m→0. In the Cosmic MacroMathematics, then we obtain: E^{2 }= (0 * 1/0)c^{4} Or E^{2} = (0 * ∞)c^{4} (16) As just mentioned, c can be included in the (0‧∞) term, and we can express the characteristic energy equation of L particle more directly E_{Lparticle} = 0 * ∞ (17) Equation (17) indicates that the energy derived from L particle, being the origin of spiritual power, will harmonize all other energies in the entire multiple universes, extending from zero to infinity, into its own essence. That will naturally include all the space and time. Ultimately, it cannot be restricted even by time and space. That is the real meaning of spacetime unification, in which the cause and the effect are simultaneous and the Dharma wheels turn incessantly. (IIIB and IIIC are excerpted respectfully from Master Lee's instructions in the mental doctrine class on 1/22, 1/29 and 2/19, 2000.)
IV. Lpartical and Cosmic MacroMathematics
The spacetime structure which Einstein relativity theory deals with is mathematically based on the constancy of speed of light as measured by us in this cosmic quadrant or solar system. This relativity theory will not lead us to understand the spacetime structures of multiple universes where the energy barrier cannot be broken through. Not only the energy supply cannot be fulfilled, but also we cannot model and verify those spacetime structures with human mathematics. Thus, we first propose that there are infinite numbers of multiple universes overlapping each other, each with its own unique speed of light, different from that in our universe. So, the speed of light or photon is not absolute. Only Lparticle is unique and absolute. Its energy is E = 0‧∞ harmonizing all other possible forms or energies. Then the infinite spiritual powers interact to build up the spacetime structures, in which energy and mass transform and manifest according to circumstances. In the inconceivable Cosmic MacroMathematics, "free transformation of N and 1/N" or "the simultaneous existence and free transformation of both the physical and spiritual phenomena" are the theoretical foundation of all the interactive transformations of spacetime/energy within each individual cosmic quadrant and between multiple universes.
REFERENCE
[1] G. C. Bower, D. C. Bucker, M. Wright, J. R. Foster, H. D. Aller and M. F. Aller, "A Dramatic Millimeter Wavelength Flare in the GammaRay Blazar NRAO 530", The Astrophysical Journal, 484:118130, July 1997. [2] The Scientific Approach to Buddhist Study  Principle of Universe By Master SonDon Lee of Forshang Buddhism in The World of Forshang magazine No.17, 3/31/1999. [3] The Scientific Approach to Buddhist Study  The Mathematical Principle, By Master SonDon Lee of Forshang Buddhism in The World of Forshang magazine No.18, 5/11/1999. [4] The Scientific Approach to Buddhist Study  Principle of Universe (2) The Mystery of Life of Black Hole and the Galaxy, By Master SonDon Lee of Forshang Buddhism in The World of Forshang magazine No.20, 8/8/1999. [5] The Scientific Approach to Buddhist Study  The Mathematical Principle (2)The Mathematical Validation of Time and Space Travel, By Master SonDon Lee of Forshang Buddhism in The World of Forshang magazine No.20 published on 8/8/1999. [6] Hans Reichenbach The Philosophy of Space and Time 1958 Dover Publications, Inc. [7] Lawrence H. Ford and Thomas A. Roman "Negative Energy, Wormholes and Warp Drive" Scientific American January 2000 [8] Edwin F. Tayler, John Archibalk Wheeler Spacetime Physics Second Edition 1992 W.H. Freeman and Company
